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2014年1月21日 星期二

4.4 Premarital cohabitation: reflection

Joselin & Justine

1.PPT:
(1)Add Outlins
(2)Add the titles of each pages
(3)Make some decorations
2.Add some interesting plots into the presentation
ex. drama, puzzles, videos


Eva & Vicky

1.The last group(the most interesting one )
2. Keep the style of previous presentations

Claire & Emily
1.The first group
2.Come up some games
ex. guess "what country it is"

6.2 Final Transcription

Hello, I’m Justine, and this is Joselin. And we’ll going to talking(correct:talk) about Cohabitation today. So, at first, we want to ask you some questions, it is ”what do you think about cohabitation.” (Q&A) “Roger?” “I mean you can cohabitate with someone if you are mature enough.You still be childish kind of. I guess it depends on the voluntation. ” “Thank you. And how about Chou Shan?  ” “I don’t have any idea.” “You don’t have any idea. Okay. Alisa?” "Mmm?" "I think you'll get a zero because you have bad attention." “Mmm, I agree with Roger. If you're mature enough,you know, living with someone,and you move in, that anything could happen.  ” “And…?” ”I don’t have opinion. ” (Q&A END) Okay, and we’ll have a little drama. (Drama) Joselin:Hey, Justine. I just got a new boyfriend. Justine: Another?! And what do you think about moving out with him? Because I need your shelf. I just bought three more new clothes today. Jo:No. It’s impossible. Ju: Why? I think it’s very positive. And you live with your boyfriend, I live with your shelf. Jo: We are just in a relationship. And I don’t know him deeply, and I don’t want to change my life style, and I don't want to depend on him all day long. Ju: But if you want to know him better, you have to move in. And I can move in your shelf. Okay, and I’ll tell you another reason. (Drama END)"Because of the shelf."(laughing) I’m standing on the positive side, and I’m going to talk about purpose of cohabitation, legal issues, economic issues, and woman independence in cohabitation. (Joselin:And I'll talk about negative side of cohabitation, three aspects, romance itself, relationship with others, and impact on marriage.) And I go first, we found that cohabitation seems to be more popular in Taiwan recently. But actually, Jing-li Yang(2004), the associate professor of department of Sociology in Nanhua University, said that” there are 90% of the Nordic population had experienced premarital cohabitation phase.” Jing-li Yang also evaluated the overview of cohabitation in Taiwan, however, it turned out that there were only 5.9% in over-15-year-old and unmarried people have had cohabitation. So it is very queer, and I’m going to explore it and talk about the difference. At first , I want to talking about the purposes of cohabitation. I think cohabitation is a new way to know each other better. If you move in ,you can see his life habits and what he actually doing in his private time. And another reason is if you move in, you’ll find out that you have to share the cost of life, like air-conditioner fee and electronic fee, and these are the true faces of the life. And this is kind of a trial of marriage that you can test if he or she is the one that you can share the rest of life. Next one is legal issues. The choice of living with someone is a right that our laws allowed. And some people are worried about their rights after having cohabitation. They said that when the problem of finance or estate occurs, people taking cohabitation would be helpless than people in marriages. However, in page 26 of "Cohabitation", which was written by Mireille Dewevre Fourcadeto, a professor of French Le Havre University , " In number 1382 terms of the Civil Law, it indicated clearly that if someone cause others' damages, this kind of fact could force this person to be responsible for compensating others' damage." It explained that if our rights were invaded in cohabitation relationship, we could use laws to protect ourselves as well. And the other people were worried about that cohabitation was not in the restriction of law so people who take cohabitation were kind of being not indecent. This nonsense could be broken in page 69, "In the total compilation of laws, only having sex consistently couldn't be admitted as cohabitation. " And next one is economic issues , here is a graph, it reveals that “greater economic well-being is associated with cohabitation for adults with college degrees, but not for those without college degrees” The cost of marriage is too high to undertake , from Cherlin.(1922) And, second, Changes in social standards made people no longer felt obligated to remain in unhappy marriages, from Gary Becker(1981.)Third, Women's increased participation in the waged labor force, which reduced the economic advantages and necessity of marriage, from Gary Becker.(1981) The last one is women independence in four aspect, legal, economic, social, and education. Feminism suddenly appeared on the horizon in the late nineteenth century. They figured out all these so-called truth were totally irrational. They waked up, starting to receive education and participate in the polity and the labor market. It was a big step that they started to try to fight for their rights that had been deprived for a long time, such as legal rights, social right, and economic status. For example, in the past, children had to take their fathers' last name ,but recently, women found out that this is very wrong, and they fight against it. So now the parents can choose which last name their children take. It's a big step of women independence. Women's economic status become higher made them think why should they rely on men. Women started to enter the labor market and tried to get rid of the restriction from men, so they stared to refuse marriage,choose cohabitation, which means they could not only be a ordinary housewife. My part is over.

2014年1月15日 星期三

6.1 Final paper (apa)










Premarital Cohabitation and Its Effects Research
Siou-jyun Huang
National Central University

Author Note
Siou-jyun Huang, Department of English, National Central University
This research was supported in part by a grant from National Science Council.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Siou-jyun Huang, Department of English, National Central University, No.300, Zhongda Rd., Zhongli City, Taoyuan County 320, Taiwan (R.O.C.)
Contact:s954421@gmail.com



Abstract
This paper would explain the reasons why cohabitation becomes popular recently and the attitude toward cohabiters in our society. Jing-li Yang(2004), the associate professor of department of Sociology in Nanhua University, said that” there are 90% of the Nordic population had experienced premarital cohabitation phase.” Jing-li Yang also evaluated the overview of cohabitation in Taiwan, however, it turned out that there were only 5.9% in over-15-year-old and unmarried people have had cohabitation. The data shows that even it seems to be popular, but the cohabiters are still the minority of the society. This paper would discuss about this phenomenon and how the trend of cohabitation affects in three aspects, such as social, economic, and legal aspects. The author used related videos, research paper online, and books to approve the pros and cons of cohabitation.



Premarital cohabitation Research
Cohabitation, which means lovers without the certification of marriage live together. It becomes more and more popular in Taiwan recently, and the reason why it sprung up included social factors and economic factors, such as the use of Internet let teenagers realize their difference between countries and start to imitate it, or the economic independence of women makes women no longer rely on the support of family. However, the concept of cohabitation seems to be incompatible with our traditional values. Many experts and TV programs starts to make comments on this trend of cohabitation, most of them stand against the concept of cohabitation. Their reasons vary from the safety of girls to the social perception and parents’ feelings. From one episode of Dad and Mom Oh My God, young people considered cohabitation a further step of relationship, while one parenting expert, Den-han Huang, said that young people always misunderstand that cohabitation was the necessary step toward marriage. The gap of generations popped up in his statement, and it can connect with many differences between their social backgrounds.

Discussion
Social aspect
Dominance of masculinity. The dominance of masculinity has ruled our society since year 2 BC, this ideology first occurred in Chun Qiu Fan Lu, which was written by Zhong-shu Dong. The main ideas of Chun Qiu Fan Lu are all about the superiority of men. The ideology was implied in many things such as emphasizing the virginity of women and being a dutiful housewife, which depressed women for a very long time. That’s why cohabitation has been always scolded for devaluing the chasity of women, which contains so much prejudice. If people throw these stereotypes away, the meaning of cohabitation would be more positive.
Women Independence. However, feminism suddenly appeared on the horizon in the late nineteenth century. They figured out all these so-called truth were totally irrational. They waked up, starting to receive education and participate in the polity and the labor market. It was a big step that they started to try to fight for their rights that had been deprived for a long time, such as legal rights, social right, and economic status. Women started to enter the labor market and tried to get rid of the restriction from men, so they stared to refuse marriage, which means they could only be a ordinary housewife.
Trial marriage. In page 54 of"Living Together for Love", Yi-Xin Huang, published by Gao-Lin International AG, it said "The Reasons to Support Cohabitation: 1. To test if he or she would be an ideal mate. 2. Only care about what we had once. 3. To learn how to face the real life. 4. To have an identity that between single and unmarried. 5. To make the time that fighting together earlier. 6. To make the relationship stable." All the benefit of cohabitation mentioned above are steps to test if marriage is a good idea.
Comparison. In the research of Li-Ya, Huei, she mentioned that Nock (1995) already pointed out there were almost half of the US population had experiences of cohabitation before 30-year-old, and she also used the thought of Trost (1979) that cohabitation is very common in Sweden than in the US is not complete, cohabitation is a kind of social structure rather than deviant behavior before unmarried. Although cohabitation seemed to be popular in other countries, Jing-li Yang evaluated that there were only 5.9% in over-15-year-old and unmarried people have had cohabitation in Taiwan. It shows the difference of our society and foreign countries at culture aspect.
Economic aspect
Enter the labor market. When women started to be considered as a part of the labor market ,rather than just housewives who only do housework without payment, their society status started to prove as well. This fact indicates that women didn't have to rely on marriage and their husband as a tradition because they already have economic ability to make a living now. An article named” Cohabitation-Reasons for Cohabitation” cited Gary Becker’s (1981) words,” An essential change in the gender division of labor has followed women's increased participation in the waged labor force. This change has reduced the economic advantages and necessity of marriage.” It explained why cohabitation became a trend. And Cherlin (1992) explained the rise of cohabitation as well, he remarked, "Women's new-found financial independence and the spread of more individual-centered values eventually contributed to the instability of marriage. Changes in social standards meant that people no longer felt as obligated to remain in unhappy marriages. Financial independence meant that they did not have to. Besides increasing the divorce rate, changes in postwar economics and ideas caused the rise in delayed marriage and cohabitation."
Standard of life. There is another economic research named “Living Together: The Economics of Cohabitation”, which is written by Richard Fry and D’vera Cohn, it reveals that “greater economic well-being is associated with cohabitation for adults with college degrees, but not for those without college degrees”. (graph 1) This fact indicates that between those who have well-paid jobs, cohabitation is a way to show one self’s economic independence, while in those who aren’t so lucky, cohabitation represents poor financial status. Whether the cohabiters have college degrees or not, they choose cohabitation because of the cost of marriage is too high to undertake, the difference between these two groups was that those who don't have college degrees may be forced to choose cohabitation. It seemed like cohabitation could be kind of negative that poverty lead to cohabitation, but the education became widespread these years, so we could assume that this effect on higher academic degrees would spread widely with the education.
Financial benefits. From "Living Together for Love", Yi-Xin Huang, published by Gao-Lin International AG, it talked about many benefit of cohabitation, in page 56 of "Living Together for Love", it mentioned some economic benefits, such as," The telephone charge that saved could buy two more clothes." Cohabitation could make two people to share the cost of life, it could reduce the burden.
Legal aspect
    Some people are worried about their rights after having cohabitation. They said that when the problem of finance or estate occurs, people taking cohabitation would be helpless than people in marriages. However, in page 26 of "Cohabitation", which was written by Mireille Dewevre Fourcadeto, a professor of French Le Havre University , " In number 1382 terms of the Civil Law, it indicated clearly that if someone cause others' damages, this kind of fact could force this person to be responsible for compensating others' damage." It explained that if our rights were invaded in cohabitation relationship, we could use laws to protect ourselves as well. And the other people were worried about that cohabitation was not in the restriction of law so people who take cohabitation were kind of being not indecent. This nonsense could be broken in page 69, "In the total compilation of laws, only having sex consistently couldn't be admitted as cohabitation. "
Conclusions
There is no right-or-false question in the definition of cohabitation. Cohabitation is only a kind of way for lovers to understand his or her lover deeply. That is exactly why the author support couples to do the cohabitation at their will because understanding is the most important part of a relationship rather than freshness.
References
1.同居潮流,屋簷下的親密關係 /黃憶欣 , 53-58
2.同居 / 德韋弗爾-富爾卡德(Mireille Dewevre-Fourcade); 許連高譯
臺北市 : 遠流出版 : 信報發行, 1991[80],p.26-69
3.Living Together: The Economics of Cohabitation
BY RICHARD FRY AND D’VERA COHN
4.Cohabitation - Reasons For Cohabitation
5. LI,YA-HUEI’s research



2014年1月12日 星期日

5.2 Premarital cohabitation: revised 4

After the issue of cohabitation had raised, many economists and sociologists started to discuss how this phenomenon influence our society. To prove that cohabitation has positive effects and origins in the students group, I found a report which was researched and written by Richard Fry and D’Vera Cohnsenior economist and senior writer, respectively, of the Social & Demographic Trends project of the Pew Research Center.

  At the beginning of the report , it used a graph to summarize its points.
We can that the cohabitors of those who don't have a college degrees earn less money than those married ones, while the cohabitors of those who have a college degrees earn more than those married ones. I figured out that whether the cohabitors have college degrees or not, they choose cohabitation because of the cost of marriage is too high to undertake, the difference between these two groups was that those who don't have college degrees may be forced to choose cohabitation. It seemed like cohabitation could be kind of negative that poverty lead to cohabitation, but if we see deeper, we could found out that for those who received education, cohabitation could present a greater economic status. Below this graph, the authors also concluded,"This report finds that greater economic well-being is associated with cohabitation for adults with college degrees, but not for those without college degrees. " The education becomes widespread these years, so we could assume that this effect on higher academic degrees would spread widely with the education. 

  Further more, cohabitation could present part of women's independence. I found an article mentioned that Cherlin (1992), remarked,"Women's new-found financial independence and the spread of more individual-centered values eventually contributed to the instability of marriage. Changes in social standards meant that people no longer felt as obligated to remain in unhappy marriages. Financial independence meant that they did not have to. Besides increasing the divorce rate, changes in postwar economics and ideas caused the rise in delayed marriage and cohabitation.And Gary Becker (1981) also argued,"The single most important factor underlying social transformation related to lower fertility, divorce, and cohabitation has been the rise in the earning power of women. An essential change in the gender division of labor has followed women's increased participation in the waged labor force. This change has reduced the economic advantages and necessity of marriage, and consequently, divorce rates have increased and marriage rates have decreased. The reduced benefits of marriage and the specter of marital instability have made nonmarriage more attractive. Reduction in the expected economic gains from marriage has made men and women more hesitant to enter marital unions, but a shared household still offers economic advantages. Cohabitations make good sense because they capitalize on the benefits of a shared household without the economic risks associated with marriage." We can conclude that the cost of marriage was higher than its benefits sometimes. Especially when the concept of individual independence had raised up , people prefer to show their financial independence through not getting married, which seems to be more independent to make a living on their own.


Sources:
1.Living Together: The Economics of Cohabitation
BY RICHARD FRY AND D’VERA COHN
http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2011/06/27/living-together-the-economics-of-cohabitation/
2.Cohabitation - Reasons For Cohabitation
http://family.jrank.org/pages/275/Cohabitation-Reasons-Cohabitation.html

2013年12月25日 星期三

4.3 Premarital cohabitation: revised 3

Cohabitation, becomes more and more popular recently. Many people stand against this kind of life style because of  being worry about their rights after having cohabitation. They said that when the problem of finance or estate occurs, people taking cohabitation would be helpless than people in marriages. So I found a book , which was written by Mireille Dewevre Fourcadeto, to refute these thoughts. Mireille Dewevre Fourcadeto was a professor of French Le Havre University, and he had done so much studies about cohabitation from Ancient Roman to Modern France. This book named "Cohabitation" talked about how to solve common problems of cohabitation and breaking many misunderstanding concepts by mentioning many set laws. And the translator of this book, hsu lien-kao, made many efforts on in the process of translating. He said that he tried to interpret the book much more carefully by studying The Six Laws so hard and asking famous jurists. 
 Some people questioned that how the two people separate their belongings without the indemnification of law if the relationship was broken. This question could be answered in page 26 of "Cohabitation", " In number 1382 terms of the Civil Law, it indicated clearly that if someone cause others' damages, this kind of fact could force this person to be responsible for compensating others' damage." It explained that if our rights were invaded in cohabitation relationship, we could use laws to protect ourselves as well. And the other people were worried about that cohabitation was not in the restriction of law so people who take cohabitation were kind of being not indecent. This nonsense could be broken in page 69, "In the total compilation of laws, only having sex consistently couldn't be admitted as cohabitation. "
 Cohabitation is just a way to live a life , not a way to run away from the control of laws or challenge the society deliberately. It is just a concept which has been misunderstood for a long time.  In fact,the book I mentioned above was standing on a relatively neutral position , so it didn't value anything or make subjective comments to blame on anyone. All the author of this book and me were just trying to use those laws related to cohabitation to correct the misunderstandings. So, stop fussing and take a deeper look on what you were blaming on, maybe it was just read in a wrong way.

5.1 Premarital cohabitation: annotation 4

  After the issue of cohabitation had raised, many economists and sociologists started to discuss how this phenomenon influence our society. To prove that cohabitation has positive effects and origins in the students group, I found a report which was researched and written by Richard Fry and D’Vera Cohn, senior economist and senior writer, respectively, of the Social & Demographic Trends project of the Pew Research Center.

  At the beginning of the report , it used a graph to summarize its points.
We can that the cohabitors of those who don't have a college degrees earn less money than those married ones, while the cohabitors of those who have a college degrees earn more than those married ones. I figured out that whether the cohabitors have college degrees or not, they choose cohabitation because of the cost of marriage is too high to undertake, the difference between these two groups was that those who don't have college degrees may be forced to choose cohabitation. It seemed like cohabitation could be kind of negative that poverty lead to cohabitation, but if we see deeper, we could found out that for those who received education, cohabitation could present a greater economic status. Below this graph, the authors also concluded,"This report finds that greater economic well-being is associated with cohabitation for adults with college degrees, but not for those without college degrees. " The education becomes widespread these years, so we could assume that this effect on higher academic degrees would spread widely with the education. 

  Further more, cohabitation could present part of women's independence. I found an article mentioned that Cherlin (1992), remarked,"Women's new-found financial independence and the spread of more individual-centered values eventually contributed to the instability of marriage. Changes in social standards meant that people no longer felt as obligated to remain in unhappy marriages. Financial independence meant that they did not have to. Besides increasing the divorce rate, changes in postwar economics and ideas caused the rise in delayed marriage and cohabitation." And Gary Becker (1981) also argued,"The single most important factor underlying social transformation related to lower fertility, divorce, and cohabitation has been the rise in the earning power of women. An essential change in the gender division of labor has followed women's increased participation in the waged labor force. This change has reduced the economic advantages and necessity of marriage, and consequently, divorce rates have increased and marriage rates have decreased. The reduced benefits of marriage and the specter of marital instability have made nonmarriage more attractive. Reduction in the expected economic gains from marriage has made men and women more hesitant to enter marital unions, but a shared household still offers economic advantages. Cohabitations make good sense because they capitalize on the benefits of a shared household without the economic risks associated with marriage." We can conclude that the cost of marriage was higher than its benefits sometimes. Especially when the concept of individual independence had raised up , people prefer to show their financial independence through not getting married, which seems to be more independent to make a living on their own.


Sources:
1.Living Together: The Economics of Cohabitation
BY RICHARD FRY AND D’VERA COHN
http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2011/06/27/living-together-the-economics-of-cohabitation/
2.Cohabitation - Reasons For Cohabitation
http://family.jrank.org/pages/275/Cohabitation-Reasons-Cohabitation.html

2013年12月23日 星期一

4.2 Premarital cohabitation: transciption

Okay, I'm Justine, and she is Joselin. We are going to talk about cohabitation. First one, I'm standing at the positive side. I made a photograph (correct: graph or chart). I think cohabitation has many positive meanings like KNOW EACH OTHER BETTER. Cohabitation provides a new way, a brand new way to know each other deeper.You can know his life hobby through cohabitation. And next one is (that) this cohabitation can make you two to FACE THE REAL LIFE. When you start to share your life, you have to learn to face more financial problems. Like, you can save your telephone charges, that(correct: which) is good, but you learn to share your air-conditioner charges because you're living together and you have to face many more problems in reality. Okay. And the third one is (that) all the cohabitations comes from one purpose: TEST IF HE OR SHE IS THE ONE. The one you can rely on him or her in the rest of life. How positive the meaning of cohabitation is.

Next one I'm going to talk about what cohabitation means legally. Cohabitation is a right of liberty that our laws allowed. And some people may say that you can't gain protection from our laws as same as in the marriage because the marriage has a paper(correct: a piece of paper), which means the law. But actually I found a book that writes(correct: said), "In number 1382 terms of the Civil Law, it indicated clearly that if someone cause others' damages, this kind of fact could force this person to be responsible for compensating others' damage." So, we can say that our laws have the ability to control this situation. That the laws can protect you ,you don't have to worry about if we take the cohabitation and we don't have the paper so that the laws can't protect you. That is not true. And we also can say that cohabitation provides a very good way for homosexual couples who can't have a marriage now, and the cohabitation can provide the feeling of home and family.

And next one is talking about WOMEN INDEPENDENCE. Why cohabitation came from women independence? In our conventional society, we depressed women for a very long time. When that day the women waked up, they tried to fight for their (right of) education. After having the education, they learned more and found out not only their right of education was taken away. There were still legal rights, social right, and economic status that they had been deprived. They still fought for legal fairness. We can found that recently we could choose children's last name, not just follow the tradition to use fathers' last names. So that, after all these (things), we could (also) found that women's economic status improved. The women didn't have to rely on marriage and their husband because they (already) have economic ability to make a living. Like "I don't have to marry someone to rely on him." We can say that cohabitation improved the social status of women. And we can found that sometimes someone would say,"When two people take the cohabitation, the Chasity of women would be valueless." They said that women's chasity is important. But actually, if we said that women is as same as men, then why don't we focus on the chasity of men? Okay ,and my part is over.